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Densitometry: the essence and tasks of the methodology, the interpretation of the results
Densitometry is a noninvasive study of the structure of the bone, by means of which the content of their mineral part, namely, calcium, is determined.
If this element is not enough, the fragility of the bone tissue increases, which can cause problems with the motor function of the body, since bones are the basis of the musculoskeletal system.
In addition, the consequence of reducing the proportion of calcium can be osteoporosis and frequent fractures, which are especially dangerous for the spine and hip joint.
- objectives of
- studies What is the
- procedure when you need to pass
- procedure Osteoporosis Diagnostics
- Types research
- Ultrasound diagnosis
- X-ray method
- Preparation for
- procedure How is
- procedure Inpatient Study
- Research monobloc equipment
- Decoding results
- Effective and safe - say patients
- Cost of procedure
Objectives of theSIC study
procedure helps to determine:
- mineral content in the bone tissue of any part of the human body;
- degree of loss of bone density;
- location of vertebral fractures;
- osteopenia is an insignificant decrease in the mineral constituents of bone, which can subsequently lead to osteoporosis;
- general condition of the spine;
- predict the likelihood of a hip fracture in the next ten years;
- the presence of osteoporosis;
- degree of development of this disease;
- the correctness of the diagnosis;
- efficacy of a prescribed prophylaxis or treatment.
Densitometry is painless and is performed without anesthesia.
What is the procedure for
Densitometry is based on the work of ultrasound or X-ray radiation. The indicators are read by sensors and transmitted to the computer, after which a special program determines the density of bones.
The procedure is carried out with the help of special equipment:
- Stationary in the form of a table and a "sleeve" that hangs over the patient. With the help of it, the vertebral column and the hip joints are examined.
- Monoblock is a small device for scanning individual parts of the body, such as feet, brushes, etc.
Depending on bone density, the wave speed will be different, which makes it possible to determine the structure change.
When it is necessary to undergo the procedure
The amount of calcium in the bone tissue begins to decrease after 30 years, and is critically reduced to 50 years. Therefore, the procedure is recommended for people:
- is older than 50 years, regardless of health status;
- is over 30 years old if relatives have osteoporosis;
- during menopause and menopause in women over 40;
- to men over 60 years of age, who suffered an adnexectomy.
Regardless of age:
- after treatment with drugs that excrete calcium from the body;
- during and after taking hormone preparations;
- diseases of the liver and kidneys, diseases of the thyroid gland, rheumatism;
- for diabetes;
- people who suffered a fracture as a result of minor trauma;
- often sitting on diets and applying fasting;
- experiencing regular intense physical activity;
- with underweight;
- abusing alcohol and cigarettes.
If a calcium deficiency in the bones is diagnosed in a timely manner, the prescribed treatment and compliance with preventive measures will improve their condition and significantly reduce the risk of osteoporosis and fractures.
Diagnosis of Osteoporosis
Densitometry is the best way to diagnose osteoporosis at an early stage, as it helps to determine the slightest changes in the structure of bones.
In contrast to conventional X-ray scanning, this method can determine even 2-5% of calcium loss, which allows a timely diagnosis and begin treatment.
In addition, it is safer than conventional X-rays.
Types of research
Ultrasonic and x-ray densitometry is distinguished.
Brief analysis of the procedure:
- Characteristic of : Non-radiological examination by ultrasound. Has no contraindications and is allowed even for pregnant and lactating women. You can carry out this procedure several times within a short period of time.
- Devices : monoblock ultrasound.
- How is the performed: a portable device measures the speed of ultrasound in the bone tissue. The indicators are recorded by the built-in sensor sending them to the computer.
- Object : heel bone, brush, elbow, etc.
- Time : 3-15 minutes.
Brief analysis of the technique:
- Characteristic: is more accurate, but has contraindications for pregnant and lactating women, and is also prohibited for repeated use for a short period of time. This is due to the fact that a person receives a minimum dose of radiation, but with multiple studies, it can be harmful to health.
- Appliances: stationary table with sleeves.
- How it is done: determines the degree of attenuation of X-rays when passing through the bone.
- Object: the spine, the wrist and hip joints, the whole skeleton.
- Time: 10-30 minutes.
procedure It is necessary:
- the day before the procedure, calcium-containing drugs should not be taken;
- it is impossible to perform tomography or isotope scanning procedures, as special preparations are introduced;
- clothing should be without metal elements( buttons, rivets, zippers), as the metal reduces the reliability of the results;
- all ornaments, watches, etc. need to be removed.
How the procedure is performed
Depending on the approach, the course of the study will be different.
Stationary study of
Investigations using a stationary device:
- the patient is located on the table, while examining the spine, the legs are supported by a stand;
- when examining the hip bones, the legs are placed in the brace;
- "sleeve" is moving, with the help of analyzers transmits data to the PC;The
- can not be moved at the same time, but at the request of the doctor, you need to hold your breath.
Study with monoblock equipment
The body part to be examined: the forearm, arm, fingers, feet, is placed in this unit, which outputs the results through a computer.
Decoding of results
Important for densitometry are 2 values:
- "T" - bone tissue density compared to the norm typical for young people: -1 point or higher - the norm;-1 to -2.5 points - insufficient density of bone tissue( osteopenia);below -2.5 - osteoporosis.
- "Z" - bone density according to the age group to which the patient belongs. If there are significant deviations of the "Z" indicator from the set values of the indicators, a re-diagnosis is prescribed.
Ultrasound diagnosis has no limitations and contraindications. X-ray is contraindicated during pregnancy and lactation.
Effective and safe - say patients
Reviews of doctors and patients who have been densitometry of bones.
Bone densitometry was prescribed by an endocrinologist during a comprehensive examination. The doctor measured the height and weight. Has specified, why have appointed such young girl? I answered that my mother had osteoporosis.
All metal items had to be removed. The procedure is painless. Just lie on the table and do not move for 10 minutes. The sensors move far from the body. The results were given immediately, since it counts the entire computer. The printout clearly shows where the fracture is most likely to occur, so I was given the appropriate treatment to strengthen the bones.
The procedure is carried out quickly for 5 minutes, but I had to lower my bare leg into cold water. After scanning, the picture clearly shows that there is a risk zone for osteoporosis.
Often I go through this examination because of the existing osteoporosis. There was a disease because of the constant intake of hormonal drugs. The procedure is quick and painless. I'm being scanned with a brush in a special machine. The doctor deciphers the results and corrects the treatment.
The procedure is new, not everyone knows about it, results are given immediately, it is better to periodically go through it, especially if there is a risk of osteoporosis.
The doctor appointed during the complex examination. Do painlessly and quickly. The "T" index is almost two, the doctor said that the bones are strong and a fracture is possible only when falling from a high altitude.
Cost of procedure
Densitometry can be done in diagnostic centers and clinics that have this equipment.
The price of the procedure depends on the equipment, location, and the research itself, so the price varies between: 700-6000 rubles.
For example, the most expensive procedure will be to diagnose the entire skeleton using stationary equipment.
Thus, densitometry - is one of the best methods for determining bone mineral density and diagnosing osteoporosis , which will help prevent the development of this disease or cure it. The method and regularity of the procedure will be indicated by the attending physician.