X-ray( X-ray) is the study of the organs of the human body using X-rays. In this case, the image of the investigated object is projected onto...
Scintigraphy: a modern method of detecting bone tumors of the skeleton
The growth of cancer requires modern diagnostic methods.
Scintigraphy of the bones of the skeleton is a diagnostic method for detecting bone tumors and spine cancer.
Cancerous metastases affect bone in 70% of cases, and often scintigraphy is the only painless method of examination.
Contents of the article
- General principles of the
- procedure Indications and contraindications for the
- study Preparation for the
- survey Procedure procedure
- Evaluation and interpretation of the results
- How is the situation in real life?
- Where to do in Russia and the cost of the
procedure General principles of the
method The principle of operation is that healthy and pathological tissues absorb radioactive preparations to varying degrees.
The component is administered in a dosage that is not harmful to the body, but in a couple of hours it is noted in the affected tissues.
For the scintigraphy of the bones of the skeleton, bisphosphonates with 99mTc are most often used.
This preparation has the highest penetrating power and is ideal for control diagnostics.
Advantages of the method is as follows:
- Changes in bones are detected very early in , which is key in curing cancer.
- The dose of the patient is very small and diagnosis can be done monthly - to identify the dynamics of therapy. The total radiation dose is ten times less than with radiography.
- The method does not require specific preparation of : the food and medications taken by the patient do not play any role. But patients taking iodine preparations and heart rate blockers should not take medication at the time of the examination.
- Diagnostics allows you to examine the entire skeleton at a time , and therefore, reveals metastases in various parts of the skull, spine and ribs - wherever the tumor is usually localized. If a radioisotope accumulates on the surface of a bone or joint, then this indicates a good quality of education. If the spine or the body of the bones is affected, it is metastasis.
- With the help of scintigraphy, it is possible to monitor the results of treatment. After chemotherapy, the bones recover from 2 to 6 months. If after this period in the bones the RFP level is high, then the disease will recur.
Indications and contraindications for the
study Skeletal bone scan is indicated in the following cases:
- for the detection of oncological pathologies with bone metastasis;
- for the diagnosis of fractures and tumors in the bones;
- as a monitoring method for the dynamics of treatment;
- for the identification of zones with altered bone tissue in dystrophic processes.
Also the method is irreplaceable if the radiography could not detect cracks, fractures and other bone injuries.
Among the contraindications of the method - pregnancy and the period of breastfeeding.
The lactation procedure can be performed, but breastfeeding and mother-child communication will need to be interrupted for 24 hours.
Preparing for the
scan Skeletal bone scanning does not require special preparation, but a number of recommendations must be followed. With a must necessarily have 1 liter of clean drinking water, which should be drunk within an hour after the completion of the procedure.
The procedure includes the following steps:The
- radio indicator is inserted into the vein and penetrates into the bone tissue within 2 hours;The
- camera takes a snapshot of the diagnosis: areas where the indicator has not penetrated look like dark spots in the image, and bright or light areas may indicate a violation: arthritis, fracture, infection or tumor;
- after the snapshot it is necessary to drink a liter of water as quickly as possible, to remove radioactive components from the tissues of the body.
Evaluation and interpretation of the results
Correct evaluation of the results is the basis for accurate diagnosis.
The results are evaluated by the following indicators:
- ratio of background activity and impulses of bone structures;
- number of pulses in the zones of pathological lesion and in surrounding healthy tissues;
- the number of metastases.
The study produces static, dynamic, synchronized and tomographic images. Each of them has its own diagnostic value.
Dynamic examination, for example, allows you to study the functional features of the skeleton.
If in the anterior and posterior projections there are foci of pathology, then they form the accumulation sites of the radioactive preparation.
Metastases are often found in the ribs, spine and skull bones, but can also occur in the bones of the extremities.
How is the situation in real life?
Reviews of specialists and patients who underwent scintigraphy of the bones of the skeleton.
Because of the pain in the spine, the doctor sent for the examination of bones. It was scary to undergo a survey, because the body was administered a radioactive preparation.
But the doctors reassured that the dose would not cause any harm. In one room, the procedure was performed by two. After the injection, we were bred in the wards. The examination took no more than 30 minutes. I did not feel the consequences, but the result pleased me.
Alexey M., 43, Moscow
Two years ago, I was diagnosed with a cancer that metastasized into the ribs. Chemotherapy was successful, but in order to be convinced of the absence of metastases, the doctor prescribed scintigraphy. Although the body was administered a dangerous drug, I did not feel any deterioration in my state of health, but I learned all about my health.
Irina A., 38 yo, Saint-Petersburg
This is really a wonderful procedure, which can be used both for primary diagnosis and for monitoring the success of treatment.
I assign it to my patients for the detection of cancer and metastases, and I want to note that such a survey is less dangerous and painful than various biopsies and punctures. It is enough only to suffer a usual injection in a vein and in 2-3 hours the doctor will inform all information about the body.
Alla S., 52, oncologist, Moscow
After a sports injury, my hand ached for a very long time. The X-ray showed nothing, the motor functions were normal.
Then the doctor suggested to undergo the procedure of scintigraphy. As I explained, it consists in the introduction of radioactive particles into the body to identify the affected bones.
A shot with a radioactive substance was made into a vein, then they were sent to a hospital square to walk for a couple of hours and were forbidden to approach pregnant women and children. As a result, a crack in the bone was revealed, which did not bother me.
We started treatment, and then we appointed a follow-up examination. Fortunately, it showed nothing.
Georgy P., 29, Chekhov
Where to do the RF and the cost of the procedure
Because the procedure uses a radioactive substance, the study is conducted only in specially equipped centers.
The cost of scintigraphy of the bones of the skeleton in different institutions is presented below:
- AI oncology im Petrova Pos. Sand of the Leningrad region, st. Leningrad, house 68, 3420 rubles.
- Aleksandrovskaya hospital. St. Petersburg, Solidarity Avenue, 4, 2740 rubles. The Elizabethan hospital. St. Petersburg, st. Vavilovyh, 14, 2500 rubles.
- Department of Radionuclide Diagnostics. FGBU "RKNPK" MH and SR RF Moscow, st.3rd Cherepkovsky, d.15 a, 4700 rubles.
- Department of Radionuclide Diagnosis of FGU "National Medical and Surgical Center. NI Pirogova »Roszdrav
Moscow, Schelkovskoe highway, 23-A, 3300 rubles.
From the table we see that the average cost is approximately 3500 rubles. The survey is conducted on the basis of large medical institutions and institutes.
Thus, scintigraphy is an excellent alternative to painful methods of examination. The procedure is not carried out for children and pregnant women, and for the rest of the population the study is irreplaceable.