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Reactive meningitis: mortal danger and consequences
Reactive meningitis is an acute infectious inflammatory disease of the brain and spinal cord. Occurs in people of any age, but most often preterm infants suffer from babies, people with injuries to the back, head and CNS diseases.
The peculiarity of this disease is its suddenness, spontaneity, transience. Therefore, it is also called "fulminant meningitis" - adults can be killed in one day, and small children in a few hours. This distinguishes him from other forms of meningitis.
Causes of the disease
The causative agent of the disease is the meningococcal rod, which spreads by airborne droplets. Therefore, you can get infected by visiting a polyclinic, while driving in a transport, a store and so on.
For children attending kindergartens, it is possible to get an infection there during the epidemic. In addition to the meningococcal rods, the cause of the lesion may be enterovirus infection or other varieties.
Measles, rubella, mumps can provoke reactive meningitis. Provocators of the dis
Features of the disease in children
In young children, the disease can develop in utero if the mother is already sick with meningitis or another disease that provoked the corresponding infection in the newborn.
Children's reactive meningitis affects the baby lightning fast and can lead to death within a few hours. In all cases, there are complications that can occur immediately or occur later.
Symptomatic of the disease
Reactive meningitis manifests itself in the following characteristic symptoms:
- severe headache, sweeping to the neck and back;
- abrupt temperature increase;
- impaired consciousness;
- pain in muscles and joints, "aches" in the whole body;
- irritability, constantly tends to sleep;
- nausea and vomiting;
- hypersensitivity to light, sounds, touch;
- occipital and cervical muscles become firm;
- on the skin are red spots;
- early complications and nerve damage: paresis, deafness, paralysis;
- in young children swells and the large fontanel on the head pulsates strongly.
How the diagnosis is made
You can only give an accurate diagnosis by using a lumbar puncture. Only this study can distinguish meningitis from others, similar in symptoms to diseases.
But such a study takes time, so blood is urgently taken for general and biochemical analysis. In addition, the examination of the fundus, EEG, radiography of the skull, CT and MRI are carried out.
An accurate diagnosis of the patient is made according to three main signs: specific symptoms of meningitis, signs indicating infection of the patient and changes in cerebrospinal fluid.
Treatment of reactive meningitis is performed only in the hospital, most often in the intensive care unit. For small patients and adults, the principle of treatment is almost the same, there can only be appointments of different groups of antibiotics, but this depends on the patient's well-being and the reaction of his body to the drug. In small patients, there are always complications that occur immediately with the disease or later.
The aim of the therapy is to prevent brain edema and sad consequences for the patient, and also, as soon as possible to start treatment.
Immediately antibiotic treatment with a wide range of effects begins, with the maximum possible doses. For this, drugs from groups of penicillins, cephalosporins and macrolides are used.
If the patient's condition worsens, the drug can be injected into the spinal canal. The course of antibiotics is prescribed for a period of not less than 10 days, but if there are purulent foci in the brain area, the course is prolonged.
If the drugs used: Penicillin, Ceftriaxone and Cefotaxime do not help, and the patient faces fatal complications, then Vancomycin and Carbapenem, which have serious side effects, are used.
In addition, therapy is performed to relieve symptoms with the following drugs:
- antispasmodics and muscle relaxants - relieve muscle spasms and cramps;
- glucocorticoids - improving the work of the adrenal glands;
- Furosemide - prevention of cerebral edema;
- Sorbilact - if there is already edema;
- for general therapy is carried out with the introduction of droppers saline solutions, plasma substitutes, antipyretics.
In the first hours of treatment, all drugs are administered intravenously - so the medicine acts most effectively, helping to avoid the occurrence of toxic shock. Precisely the treatment started will help to cope with the disease without serious consequences for the patient.
Before the ambulance arrives, the patient needs to provide bodily and peace of mind, to create maximum comfort, because all his senses are exacerbated.
It is necessary to close the windows with curtains, isolate from noise and screaming, to reduce the pain syndrome put on the head, arms to the elbows and legs to the knees, ice or rags soaked in cold water, changing them as warming. The patient can give the drug for a headache.
Complications and prognosis
In reactive meningitis, a prognosis may be favorable for middle-aged people if treatment is started in a timely manner. For infants and elderly people, treatment often does not bring any effect, because the course of the disease passes swiftly, the symptoms and complications arise on an increasing basis.
Probable complications of fulminant meningitis are:
- ICE - the formation of blood clots in the blood, spots on the skin merge into one spot, on the hands and feet can begin gangrene, also blood clots in the mouth, eyes and sclera;
- mental retardation in children;
- septic shock;
- decrease in sodium ions in the blood.
In case of all treatment points, mortality from reactive meningitis occurs in 10% of all cases.
The main point of prevention of fulminant meningitis is vaccination, however, vaccination does not guarantee full protection from infection.
In addition, you should avoid crowded places, especially during the epidemic. Patients with meningitis should be isolated from the healthy, sending them to a hospital. It is necessary to strictly observe all the procedures of personal hygiene. Going on a trip or a trip, study the situation with infections in the area.
If you find yourself or close similar to meningitis symptoms, you should urgently consult a doctor, and it is better to call an ambulance. Only timely and correct treatment gives a chance to avoid death or serious consequences for the patient.