Muscle tone is muscle tension during complete relaxation of a person. This helps maintain the posture, finding the internal organs in a certain ...
Pathological muscular weakness: causes, symptoms, treatment
A lot of people turn to doctors for muscle weakness. By this phenomenon is meant a decrease in the strength of the muscles, evaluated by objective methods.
Different degrees of muscular weakness are possible.
Consider the main types and causes of muscle weakness, as well as ways to get rid of this violation.
- What is muscle weakness
- Why are they abandoned. ..
- Concomitant symptoms
- Variety of lesions
- Differential diagnostics
- Features of neuromuscular diseases in children
- Objectives and methods of therapy
- How not to lose strength
What is muscle weakness
As already mentioned,muscle weakness is a decrease in strength in the muscle( muscles), it is important to differentiate it from rapid fatigue or general weakness. Often a lack of muscular strength can be felt in a certain part or parts of the body, in particular, in the limbs.
Muscular weakness is objective( if it can be confirmed with instrumental studies), as well as subjective(
In many cases, muscle weakness is determined by neurological factors.
Why leave the force. ..
The reasons why there are a lot of muscle weakness in the legs and arms. And the most important of them is a violation of innervation.
There are such neurological causes of muscle weakness:
- Acute cerebral circulation disorder ( stroke, heart attack).In this case, there is a unilateral violation of the innervation of muscles. Spinal stroke causes bilateral weakness in the lower extremities.
- Guillain-Barre Syndrome , which causes weakness in the legs. Gradually, weakness covers the upper limbs.
- With multiple sclerosis , the nerve fibers of the brain and spinal cord are affected. This also leads to muscle weakness.
- Various injuries of provoke muscular weakness of varying severity.
- Inflammatory diseases .
In any case, muscle weakness is not caused by just one etiological factor. Violation of the motor function of the muscle can occur as a result of any damage to the motor nerve pathway. In this case, nervous excitement is not transmitted to the muscle, which causes weakness.
To assess the degree of paresis, doctors use a special five-point scale.
- 5 points - normal muscle strength and safety of muscle movements in full;
- 4 points - a small and non-expressed decrease in muscle strength. The volume of movement is preserved;
- 3 points - this is a significant reduction in the volume of movements. Muscles overcome gravity;
- 2 points - a significant reduction in the volume of movements. Muscles can not overcome gravity and friction;
- 1 point - barely noticeable muscle contractions. There is no movement in the joints;
- 0 баллов - paralysis: there is no movement in the muscles.
With muscle weakness, such accompanying symptoms may appear:
- one-sided loss of sensitivity in a particular muscle;
- hemianopia( blindness of both eyes in half of the field of view);
- develops dizziness, nausea, sometimes vomiting, as well as impairment of movements in the eyeball when the brainstem is damaged;
- , when both halves of the spinal cord are affected, sensitive disorders develop with rectal and bladder dysfunctions;
- , when one half of the spinal cord is affected, pain sensitivity is lost on the opposite side;
- with polyneuropathy, sensitivity in the feet and hands is disturbed;
- with mononeuropathy, sensitivity is lost in the zone innervated by the affected nerve;
Varieties of defeat
There are such varieties of muscle weakness:
- monoparez ( weakness of one limb);
- hemiparesis ( weakness of the right or left extremities);
- paraparesis ( weakness of only the upper or only lower limbs);
- tripartis ( weakness of only three limbs);
- tetraparesis ( weakness of all limbs).
Accordingly, the distal lesion is said if it captures the lower part of any limb. Proximal muscle weakness is observed if it grasps the upper limb. And, finally, the total weakness is said in the event that it covers the entire limb.
Finally, the paresis is easy, moderate and deep. Paralysis is spoken in the case of complete absence of arbitrary movements. On the contrary, paresis is the reduction of strength in muscles due to disorders in the motor nerve pathway.
The appearance of weakness in the muscles is an alarming sign, indicating the development of the disease. Therefore, it is necessary to consult a neurosurgeon, neuropathologist, endocrinologist, rheumatologist, infectious disease specialist, angiologist, therapist.
Differential diagnosis should be aimed at detecting damage to cortical motoneurons, peripheral motoneurons, as well as lesions of neuromuscular synapses.
Such symptoms are important:
- atrophy of ( expressed in the defeat of peripheral motor neurons and absent from cortical damage);
- fasciculation of ( occurs with lesion of peripheral neurons);
- muscle tone ( decreases with diseases of peripheral neurons and lesions of neuromuscular synapses);
- localization of muscle weakness ;
- the presence of tendon reflexes ( may be absent in peripheral neuronal lesions and increase in diseases of cortical motor neurons);
- presence of pathological extensor reflexes .
In addition, the following signs are taken into account:
- for of the central paralysis of is characterized by a decrease in muscle strength and loss of ability for small movements, as well as the appearance of pathological reflexes such as Gordon, Babinsky, Oppenheim and others;
- with peripheral paralysis decreased muscle strength, reflex, observed atony.
Electromyrosurgery is used as an additional diagnostic measure.
Features of neuromuscular diseases in children
Neuromuscular diseases are quite common in children. They can be genetically conditioned, but can arise as a consequence of other pathologies. In addition, children's neuromuscular pathologies are acute and chronic.
Among the most characteristic signs of neuromuscular diseases in children can be identified as follows.
- tipping the head back in the infant while sipping his arms;
- changes in muscle volume;
- changes the strength of muscles( it is expressed in points);
- defeat of the muscles of the tongue, external eye muscles and soft palate;
- changes in tendon reflexes;
- increased muscle fatigue;Myotonia
- motor development delay.
Timely and high-quality diagnostics are important for detecting the cause of the disease. It includes:
- determination of the presence and quantity of blood enzymes;
- studies of DNA markers;
- study of the rate of nerve conduction;
- EMG( electromyography);
- biopsy( used to diagnose many neuromuscular diseases);
- microscopy of cells obtained from nerve biopsy.
Aims and methods of therapy
The goal of the treatment is to restore the nerve conduction to increase muscle strength and volume of active movements. Massage is an important place in treatment. It must be combined with exposure to heat, as it not only develops active movements, but also contributes to the improvement of tissue nutrition. This is a kind of passive gymnastics.
Only after the patient has an opportunity to do active movements, they begin physical therapy.
Treatment of muscle weakness and associated paresis depends on the cause that caused them. Applied methods:
- surgical treatment of disorders of the brain or spinal cord;
- normalization of blood pressure with the help of hypothetical drugs to prevent violations of cerebral circulation;
- antibiotic therapy in case of an infectious disease;
- use of anti-asthma drugs.
Treatment of paralysis is aimed at eliminating the underlying disease. Proper care of the patient is extremely important.
How not to lose strength
Prevention of paresis includes such measures:
- maintaining a healthy lifestyle;
- normalization of physical activity;
- avoidance of hypothermia;
- high-grade food;
- prophylaxis of infectious diseases;
- prevention of injuries.
Timely detection of muscle weakness is important. The earlier a patient turns to a doctor, the greater the chance of a successful outcome of treatment.
Muscle weakness is a fairly common phenomenon observed in many diseases. Sometimes this is the first sign of a great danger to life. Only timely diagnostics can detect the danger in a timely manner.
Attention to your health will help to get rid of weakness in muscles, as well as many other problems and return the joy of life.