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Relationship between the structure and function of native and bioengineered cartilaginous tissue

The necessary condition for the successful creation of tissue engineering designs for the replacement of damaged supporting tissues is the understanding of the interrelationships between their composition, structure and mechanical functions.

To create tissues with a structure similar to the fibrous cartilage structure( such as in the knee meniscus or in the fibrous nucleus of intervertebral discs), mesenchymal stem cells( MSCs) grown on a special substrate have been successfully used. The deposition of extracellular matrix improves the mechanical properties of bioengineering tissue, but the connections between its composition, organization and mechanical function have not yet been studied. Moreover, it is not known how these relationships relate to the corresponding connections in the native tissue of fibrous cartilage.

A group of American scientists from the Philadelphia University of Pennsylvania created a functional tissue of fibrous cartilage, sowing a substrate of nanofibers MSC.S

cientists have investigated the role of collagen and glycosaminoglycan( GAG) in providing elasticity and cartilage tissue.

It was found that after 120 days of MCA cultivation a large amount of collagen and GAG was isolated, these extracellular matrix components being organized in such a way as to provide mechanical functions corresponding to the properties of native fibrous cartilage tissue: collagen provides mainly elasticity of , and GAG - elasticity .

With the removal of GAG, the stiffness of the tissue significantly increases, similar to the way it occurs when GAG is destroyed in the native internal fibrous nucleus.

This refers to the interactions between collagen fibers and the extracellular matrix surrounding them, occurring both in the tissue engineering and in the native fibrous cartilage.

According to Dr. P.I.Katunyan, the head physician of the Moscow Center for Biomedical Technologies, the results of the study showed the expediency of using a seeded MSC substrate for the tissue engineering of fibrous cartilage. Of great importance is also the identification of the links between the structure and function of both native and tissue-engineering biomaterial.

Materials of the study are presented in the article Nerurkar NL, et al. Homologous structure-function relationships between native fibrocartilage and tissue engineered from MSC-seeded nanofibrous scaffolds.

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Relationship between the structure and function of native and bioengineered cartilaginous tissue

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